Buffalo inhabit a wide range of habit including semi-arid bush land and montane grass lands to coastal savannas low land rain forest,as long as they are close to a water source.
They are distributed throughout sub –Saharan Africa and found throughout the north southern savanna as well as the low land rain forest.
Savanna buffaloes are large heavy cow like animal namely forest buffalo, West African savanna buffalo central African buffalo and southern savanna buffalo. They are different not only in size but also in shape of their horns and their coloring. The young buffalo are always reddish-brown in color. Adults are normally dark gray or black but the buffalo appear red or white after wallowing in mud of that color unlike in western Uganda, majority savanna buffaloes are also red or pale orange instead of black. Adults lose hair as they age. Males and female heavy ridged horns that grows straight from the head or curve downward and upward.
The horn are used as weapons against predator and when fostling for space with in the herd. Males use horns in fighting for dominance. Buffaloes spend much of their time grazing fresh green feed and chewing their cud to extract more nutrients from their food. Buffaloes live in herd of thousands in the Serengeti during the rainy season as one of their anti-predator adaptations.
The older bulls often prefer to be on their own. The female and their offspring make up the bulk of the herd. Males spend much of their time in bachelor group. These groups are of the types, males from4 to 7 year old and males of 12 years old. Females have their first calves at age of 4to 5 normally during rainy season and mostly give birth at the end of rainy season.
Males do not invest in their offspring but females who have unusual instance and prolonged relationship. Calves are suckled for as long as a year old and during this time are completely depend on their mothers. Females offspring usually stay in the natal herd. Males aged 4years vacant the herd.
Buffaloes are quiet in most times but animals do communicate. In mating seasons they grant and emit horse bellows, and a calf in danger will bellow mournfully, bringing herd members running on a gallop to decent it. Their sight and hearing is poor but their scent is well developed. Buffaloes feed at night mostly of the relatively difficult time regulating body temperature.
Buffalo habitat is threatened by fragmentation caused by land division un sustainable development. Buffalo with their size aggressive nature and formidable horns, they are seen dangerous and this cause conflicts with human. They spread bovine diseases to live sock.
The buffalo conservation is done by the government entities introduced to help plan propose alternative solution to habitat fragmentation by proving its scientists as resources to assist in proper planning to ensure a balance between growth and modernization and wildlife conservation and by engaging communities.